Friday, December 3, 2010

Index Value Plot


Index Value Plots are used to compare two sets of data. This can be used in many different forms. Placing the data in this manor allows us to see any discrepancies in the data.

Range Graded Proportional Circle Map

Range Graded Proportional Circle Maps are Proportional Circle Maps whos circle size have been predetermined in order to represent an average range of data. The example above show the Hispanic Population on the United States.

Continuously Variable Proportional Circle Map

Continuously Variable Proportional Circle Map is a Proportional Circle Map that  specifically links the size of the circles to particular data. This is great for showing population.


A Climograph isa weather graph used to chart monthly precipitation and temperature conditions for aa given location. Above is bar graph of Boulder, CO

Hypsometric Maps

Hypsometric Maps are maps that show elevation with shades of color. It is most commonly done with earth tones. Above is an example of a Hypsometric Map of France. Usually the darker the tone, the higher the elevation.

Thursday, December 2, 2010


An Isopleth is a map of Isolines that connect, in circular(ish) form, in order to show areas with similar vlaues.


Isotachs connect areas of equal wind speed, they are a type of Isoline, similar to Isobars. The example above shows the wind direction and speed across the United States.

Nominal Area Choropleth Map

A Nominal Area Choropleth Map does not give any particular percentagesof order information. Instead it visually shows us a summary of the data.

Univariate Choropleth Map

A Univariate Choropleth Map is basically a Choropleth Map only discussing on variable.  The example shown above deals with water withdraws in the United States.

Triangle Plot


A Triangle Plot makes it possible to plot three variables against each other. There is over lap between the variables which forms the gray section in the middle.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Bivariate Choropleth Map

A Bivariate Choropleth map is a Classed Choropleth map that compare two sets of statistics. The map above showing the change in divorce rates, comparing a 1980's Classed Choropleth Map to and 1990s Classed Choropleth Map. 

*If you go to the source of the photo the map flashes between Classed Choropleth Maps. I have provided a screencap below in order to show the other map that flashes. 

Unclassed Choropleth Maps

Unclassed Choropleth Maps are extremely similar to Classed Choropleth Maps except, Unclassed Choropleth maps do not have an averaged statistic towards each particular color. There are many shades of each color to show the diversity of the statistics.


A Histogram is a basic bar graph that we have been familiar with since early math classes. The example above shows us the statistics of Particular jockeys.

Planimetric Map

Planimetric maps use lines and symbols in order to depict a certain are. They do not include elevation. There primary purpose is for transportation lay outs.

Box Plot


A Box Plot is usually shown in the format above but I have included a second picture that clearly explains the way a box plot is drawn and understood. These graphs allow us to quickly spot the Mean and Median.

Stem and Leaf Plot


A Steam and Leaf plot is used to organize a set of numbers. The left column (the Stem) would be the first digit in the number and the right column (the Leaf) would be the following numbers. So the first row is a way of organizing the numbers 90 ad 96. This also allows us a clear visual as to where majority of the numbers in out set fall.

Similarity Matrix

A Similarity Matrix is similar to a Correlation Matrix but instead it uses blocks of colors in order to show correlation. One the Matrix shown above, the more red toned the square it the more correlation it has between the X and Y axis. 

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Cadastral Map


Cadastral Maps are used to show land ownership. They were original used for government and tax purposes. 

Accumulative Line Graph

The Accumulative Line Graph, or Lorenz Curve, is most commonly used to show income inequality. It was developed in 1905 by Max Lorenz.

Classed Choropleth Maps

The Classes Choropleth Map shown above depicts the number of Men per 100 Women in 2000 according to the United States Census. The color coordinated map makes it easy to understand in a simple glance.

Parallel Coordinate Graph

 Parallel Coordinate Graphs are able to show large amounts of variable statistics at once.  Each color represents a different variable. A great example of this would be sports statistics. In baseball, each color would be a different hitter and each statistic, a different time at bat.

Correlation Matrix

A Correlation Matrix shows the levels of similarities between variables. This does not look like the common map but is considered to be one. They do not have to be used only for cartography reasons.

Monday, November 29, 2010

Cartographic Amination

Cartographic Animations are extremely usefull because they change in real time. There are several types of cartogaphic animation maps but a great example of this would be the traffic application on an iPhone.

Bilateral Graph

Above is an example of a Bilateral Graph, which gives both positive and negative values for at least two variables. The example given depicts trade deficits with China in the past four years.

PLSS maps

This Public Land Survey System, also known as PLSS map, is of the state of Alabama. The upper corner is Franklin, AL, highlighted in blue. This type of map is also referred to as the rectangular survey system. This was the first mathematical system of mapping.


DRGs are more commonly known as Digital Raster Graphics. This is a scanned map that usually has very high resolution.


 A DLG (Digital Line Graph) that are formed from other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maps and distributed on 3 different scales. The map above is a large scale representing different transportation routes.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

Digital Orthographic Quarter-Quads (DOQQ)

Images taken from a camera mounted on the botom of an airplane, these DOQQs are basically aerial images that are georeferenced and orthorectified.


Isobars are basically lines that connect similar air pressure, in turn forming circular images on a map.

Infrared Aerial Photograph

This is an example of an Infrared Aerial Photograph. This map of Onondago Lake in the Syracuse shows how infrared photographs pick up a slightly more detailed image than the human eye due to wavelentghs outside of our range.

Black and White Aerial Photograph

This is an example of a Black and White Aerial Photograph.  Aerial photography gives us the ability to see a detailed image of the given location. This gives about the same amount of detail as the human eye.

Proportional Circle Maps


A Proportional Circle Map is just that. The example above shows a proportional circle to the number of Mexicans per state.

Dot Distribution Map

Above is an example of a Dot Distribution Map. This map is purely a visual tool and is not the most accurate. Dot Distribution maps are often seen on site such as and store webites to show the amount of stores in your area.

Choropleth Map

A Choropleth Map is an example of a thematic map. It shows specific information without distorting the basic geographical shape of the location. Above is an example showing males per 100 females during the United States 2000 census. 

Thematic Map

Thematic Maps are used to show specific  information without distorting the given geographical location. The example above shows the time zones of the United States but thematic maps are not limited to this type of information. Choropleth, Isarithmic, and Dot maps are all examples of thematic map making.

Propaganda Map

Propaganda Maps are used through out history but are noticed mainly at times of war; this is when maps are used as a symbol of power. The image above is from the Japanese before the 1905 Russo-Japanese War, showing Russia as the “Black Octopus.

Topographic Map

Topographic Maps show both natural and man-made details. These maps make it easy to see where the is room for development or change in a certain location. These maps are usually an accumulation of several topographical surveys of the location.

Doppler Radar


Doppler Radar is used to show the weather over a given area. We see Doppler radar images used daily in our local weather forecast as well as online programs. Doppler radar is also used in aircraft's and Police speed guns. For the well known weather map version, microwave radiation is released in waves from a Doppler radar station, allowing the station to, in turn, receive information for the image.


A Light Detection And Ranging map, otherwise known as a LIDAR, gives us the evelation or any given area using laser technology.  Using short wavelentghs, LIDAR uses reflection to give us a 3D view of a location, making it easy to see any changes in the area.

Population Profile


This in an example of a population profile, showing the the immigration into the United State in 2004. It breaks up the immigration into gender and age. Profiles such as this one help the country estimate population and funding distribution.


A Compass Rose was original called a Wind Rose.  It is now used to track the winds over a period of time enabling us to predict the weather.

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

The DEM shows a representation  of a geographical locations terrain. Above is a pretty basic representation of the United States' land. DEM can also be referred to as digital terrain model (DTM). DEM shows a more naked version of the Earths elevation and texture, rather than the Digital Surface Model or DSM which includes roads and buildings.

Saturday, November 27, 2010

Flow Maps


A flow map is a perfect mixture of a flow chart and a geographical map. This gives us the ability to keeps records and visualize movement over the earths surface. The map above is an example of the migration in the Netherlands in 2007.

Scatter Plot

A scatter plot is a graph that we become familiar with starting in early math classes. It is "designed" by plotting multivariate values. This particular scatter plot is a visual for the Pythagorean triple. Other scatter plots may be used to show basics such as how age effect the amount of "best friends" you have or even crime vs population.

Star Plot

This is an example of a star plot. I decided to use an older star plot example mainly because I think it is beautiful. A star plot shows us where constellations are located. This map breaks the nightly location of the stars up based on the northern and southern hemispheres.

Mental Map

This image is the perfect description of a mental map. Mental mapping is a basic and key form of cartography that we use on a daily basis. Mental Mapping is how was save information in our brain, giving us either memories when a location is mentioned or even getting ourselves somewhere based on "autopilot".

Sunday, October 17, 2010


Net contributors      -5000 to -1000 euro per capita      -1000 to -500 euro per capita      -500 to 0 euro per capita
Net recipients
     0 to 500 euro per capita      500 to 1000 euro per capita      1000 to 5000 euro per capita      5000 to 10000 euro per capita      10000 euro plus per capita      n/a

Cartograms distort they actual land and distance shown in order to convey the information. Above is an example of a catrogram map which is being used to predict the European Union's net budget expenditure in euros for the whole period 2007-2013 per capita. The colors and distortion of the map remind me of a cardiogram for your heart.